NMR Theory Hopefully Explained. NMR, nuclear magneticresonance, is important because it provides a powerful way to deduce the structures of organic molecules. In addition, the same principle is used in MRI medical imaging. Unfortunately, the physics behind NMR is extremely complicated The Theory of NMR. The following is an outline of the discussion of the theory of NMR. This presentation is appropriate for students taking a university pre-professional level of organic chemistry. Follow the discussion in the order below, or jump between topics using the navigation frame at the top of each page NMR Spectroscopy N.M.R. = Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Basic Principles Spectroscopic technique, thus relies on the interaction between material and electromagnetic radiation The nuclei of all atoms possess a nuclear quantum number, I. (I 0, always multiples of .) Only nuclei with spin number (I) >0 can absorb/emit electromagnetic radiation Theory of NMR: The hydrogen nucleus or protons can be regarded as a spinning positively charged unit and so it will generate a tiny magnetic field HO along its spinning axis (as shown in figure 1). Now if this nucleus is placed in an external magnetic field H 0 , it will naturally line up either parallel A or antiparallel B to the direction of external field Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy, is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei. The sample is placed in a magnetic field and the NMR signal is produced by excitation of the nuclei sample with radio waves into nuclear magnetic resonance, which is detected with sensitive radio receivers. The intramolecular magnetic field around an atom in a molecule changes the.
NMR arise because of a lack of understanding of its limitations. From A.E. Derome, Modem NMR Techniques for Chemistry Research (1987) Basics of FT NMR- Six Critical Parameters This section will give you enough information about FT-NMR experiments to avoid the most common errors. We will cover the most important parameters that affec The following features lead to the nmr phenomenon: 1. A spinning charge generates a magnetic field, as shown by the animation on the right. The resulting spin-magnet has a magnetic moment ( μ) proportional to the spin. 2. In the presence of an external magnetic field ( B0 ), two spin states exist, +1/2 and -1/2
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy is a powerful and theoretically complex analytical tool. On this page, we will cover the basic theory behind the technique. It is important to remember that, with NMR, we are performing experiments on the nucleiof atoms, not the electrons. Th NMR Theory. NMR phenomenon is based on the idea which uses magnetic properties of atomic nuclei in order to get chemical information of corresponding nuclei. There are two main features explaining.. Theory of NMR Spectroscopy Nuclear Spin and Quantization of Energy: The phenomenon of magnetic resonance results from the interaction of the magnetic moment of an atomic nucleus (µ
Chapter 13: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy direct observation of the H's and C's of a molecules Nuclei are positively charged and spin on an axis; they create a tiny magnetic field + + Not all nuclei are suitable for NMR. 1H and 13C are the most important NMR active nuclei in organic chemistry Natural Abundance 1H 99.9% 13C 1.1 1. 1 H NMR: . Before we start, I suggest you to read NMR Spectrum paragraph in theory.By doing so you will understand how to interpret the spectrum. 1.1 Chemical Shifts: The common chemical shifts for 1 H NMR are listed in the table below. As you can see the chemical shifts (δ) ranges from 0-15 ppm, which is much smaller than what is seen in 13 C NMR. . This is due to the fact that for. NMR of proteins is unlike magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which obtains an image directly; protein NMR uses algorithms to create three-dimensional models of the sample of interest. 3 Protein NMR is conducted on thoroughly purified samples, which have a volume of approximately 500 µL and a concentration of approximately 0.2 mM. 16 Normally, proteins are obtained via recombinant DNA, which is. Magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy is a major technique for the characterization of the structural dynamics of biopolymers at atomic resolution. However, the low sensitivity of this technique poses significant limitations to its routine application in structural biology A quick introduction to NMR theory and how to read a carbon-13 NMR spectrum. A short exam question is worked at the end. Images used for educational purposes..
Carbon NMR is a necessary step in full structural characterization. However, ¹³C-NMR alone does not provide enough information to assign the carbons in the molecule. The NMR spectrum below does confirm the number of carbons in the molecule; however, HSQC and HMBC (we will get to these soon!) are necessary to assign the carbons with confidence 5. NMR spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique used to characterize organic molecules by identifying carbon-hydrogen frameworks within molecules. It is a research technique that exploits the magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei. It determines the physical and chemical properties of atoms or the molecules in which they are contained Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a powerful relatively non-selective analytical tool, which enables you to ascertain molecular structure including relative configuration, relative and absolute concentrations, and even intermolecular interactions. Once challenging and specialized NMR techniques have become routine NMR. - If a nucleus can have more than one energy state in a magnetic field, the quantum spin number (I) is not 0, and energy transitions for this nucleus are possible. - I depends on the number of protons (Z) and neutrons (n) in a nucleus. I=0 #Z is even #n is even mass # even NO NMR SIGNAL!!! 12C and 16O are not NMR active
I. Calculation of experimental NMR parameters Find unique solution to CQ, Q, , , , , II. Theoretical prediction of fine structure constants from molecular geometry Classical electrostatic model (EFG)- only in simple ionic compounds Quantum mechanical calculations (Density Functional Theory) (EFG, CSA Proton NMR Spectra and Rate Processes. Carbon-13 NMR Spectroscopy. Two-Dimensional (2D) NMR Techniques. Now that we have had an introduction to key aspects of 1 H NMR spectra (chemical shift, peak area, and signal splitting), we can start to apply 1 H NMR spectroscopy to elucidating the structure of unknown compounds NMR NMR Spectroscopy Units Review The Mathematics of NMR . Logarithms and Decibels Exponential Functions Trigonometric Functions Differentials and Integrals Vectors Matrices Coordinate Transformations Convolutions Imaginary Numbers The Fourier Transform Spin Physics . Spin Properties of Spin Nuclei with Spi
. The ﬁrst descriptions only included line-shape analyses of the exchanges that occurred from 10 to 10,000 times/second. The most importan Die Kernspinresonanzspektroskopie (NMR-Spektroskopie von englisch nuclear magnetic resonance) ist eine spektroskopische Methode zur Untersuchung der elektronischen Umgebung einzelner Atome und der Wechselwirkungen mit den Nachbaratomen. Dies ermöglicht die Aufklärung der Struktur und der Dynamik von Molekülen sowie Konzentrationsbestimmungen
NMR Spectroscopy is abbreviated as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the study of molecules by recording the interaction of radiofrequency (Rf) electromagnetic radiations with the nuclei of molecules placed in a strong magnetic field NMR and the BCS Theory of Superconductivity Our NMR activities in the early 1950s (Norberg, Holcomb, Carver, Schumacher) Measuring the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time, T 1, of the alkali metals: The time for the nuclear magnetization of an unmagnetized sample to be establishe Although 1H NMR is more sensitive, 13C NMR spectra are simpler with less overlapping signals and are less affected by different magnetic field strengths. Various applications of 1H and 13C NMR for the profiling of natural products are described. The use of two-dimensional 1H NMR has been used to overcome problems of spectral overlap Most NMR questions on an exam involve determining a specific structure rather than memorizing and repeating various NMR values. Typically, you will be given an NMR spectra and a molecular formula (sometimes an IR spectra will be provided). I have put together a few ideas that might make this process a bit easier NMR theory and experiments Nano Science & Technology Program TIGP, Academia Sinica • Applications of NMR to Biological Systems (a) 1D NMR and chemical shifts (b) J-coupling (c) NOE and 2D NOE spectroscopy (d) 2D TOCSY spectroscopy (e) 2D COSY spectroscopy (f) 1H, 13C, 15N NMR spectroscopy and high resolution multi-dimensional NMR
Theory of NMR parameters. From Ramsey to relativity, 1953-1983 Historical aspects of EPR parameter calculations The effective spin hamiltonian concept Fundamentals of non-relativistic and relativistic theory of NMR and ESR parameters B) NMR parameters, methodological aspects Chemical shifts with Hartree-Fock and density functional method 4 Introduction to NMR Spectroscopy Table 1.2. Properties of NMR Active Nuclei. Nuclei1 γ(rad·sec−1 · gauss−1)† INaturalAbundance(%) 1H26,753 1/2 99.980 2H4,106 1 0.016 19F25,179 1/2 100.0002 13C6,728 1/2 1.1083 15N-2,712 1/2 0.373 31P10,841 1/2 100.00 1The term Protons is used interchangeably with 1Hinthetext. 2Fluorine is not normally found in biopolymers, therefore it has to. Typically NMR relaxation times are on the order of milliseconds to seconds, hence Δσˆ Δt ≈ dσˆ dt. Tissue water correlation times due to molecular tumbling are on the order of 10-9s. Hence for Gˆˆ(Δt)≈0Δt≥ 10-6s. •In general, Redfield theory is valid for relaxation times severa
195 Pt NMR—theory and application. Brett M. Still,a P. G. Anil Kumar,a Janice R. Aldrich-Wright a and William S. Price *a. Author affiliations. * Corresponding authors. a Nanoscale Organisation and Dynamics Group, College of Health and Science, University of Western Sydney, Penrith South DC, NSW, 1797, Australia. E-mail: email@example.com It gives the reader an intermediate level theoretical basis for understanding laboratory applications, developing concepts gradually within the context of examples and useful experiments... Provides a theoretical introduction to graduate scientists and industrial researchers towards the understanding of the assignment of 1H NMR spectra Discusses, and includes on enclosed CD, one of the best, the fastest and most applicable pieces of NMR prediction software available Allows students of organic chemistry to solve problems on 1H NMR with access to over 500 assigned spectr This text is aimed at people who have some familiarity with high-resolution NMR and who wish to deepen their understanding of how NMR experiments actually 'work'. This revised and updated edition takes the same approach as the highly-acclaimed first edition. The text concentrates on the description of commonly-used experiments and explains in detail the theory behind how such experiments work Theory . NMR spectra come in very many different types, depending on the nuclei involved and the type of experiment that is carried out, but this section is limited to the interpretation of NMR spectra resulting from single pulse 1 H (i.e. proton) experiments.
NMR Relaxation: Theory and Applications NMR-relaxation: teori och tillämpningar KFK005F, 10 credits. Valid from: Spring 2021 Decided by: Margareta Sandahl Date of establishment: 2020-03-19. General Information. Division: Biophysical Chemistry Course type: Third-cycle course Teaching language: English. Ai nmr theory. Spin-spin coupling. The effective magnetic field is also affected by the orientation of neighboring nuclei. This effect is known as spin-spin coupling (fig. 3) which can cause splitting of the signal for each type of nucleus into two or more lines. Heteronuclear coupling Chemistry Vignettes: NMR Theory. No comments. A series of short screencast videos to introduce NMR spectroscopy. NMR: Atoms and Molecules in a Magnetic Field. This screencast lecture introduces atoms and molecules in a magnetic field. NMR: Nuclei in a Magnetic Field
NMR in Cancer Studies from AZoNetwork on Vimeo.. I study thioredoxin, which is a very well-known protein. The structure was solved more than three decades ago, but there are still dynamical and. A number of empirical rules have been developed for predicting chemical shifts. A very rough rule is that 13 C chemical shifts are approximately 10 to 20 times the corresponding 1 H chemical shifts. For example the protons of the methyl groups of hexane appear at about 1 ppm in the 1 H NMR spectrum and the methyl carbons of hexane appear at about 14 ppm in the 13 C NMR spectrum High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications discusses the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance and how this concept is used in the chemical sciences. This book is written at an intermediate level, with mathematics used to augment verbal descriptions of the phenomena The most simple and straight forward method of backbone resonance assignment involves the use of 15 N, 13 C labelled protein and the measurement of CBCANNH and CBCA(CO)NNH spectra.. Large Proteins. Large proteins give worse NMR spectra, because they tumble more slowly While NMR is the most used analytical method for determining the molecular structure of isolated chemical entities, small compounds as well as macromolecules, its capability of analysing complex mixtures is less known. The advent of Diffusion Ordered SpectroscopY (DOSY) NMR has made diffusion experiments po
Solution NMR. Assignment Theory. Visualising 3D Spectra; Triple Resonance Backbone Assignment; Triple Resonance Side-chain Assignment; Double Resonance Backbone Assignment; Double Resonance Side-chain Assignment; Assignment Practice. Initialising the HSQC; Peakpicking the 3D Spectra; Triple Resonance Backbone Assignment. Manual Assignment; Semi. Theorie für Anfänger Aufsätze 1.Weltverbesserungskompetenz als Lernziel? (2002) 2. Lernen durch Lehren: Konzeptualisierung als Glücksquelle (2018) Terminologie (bei Bedarf) LdL-Glossar Das LdL/NMR-Team Akteur*innen Materialien Neue Menschenrechte: Leporello Theorie für Fortgeschrittene Aufsätze 1.Lernziel Partizipationsfähigkeit und Netzsensibilität (2009) 2.Neubegründung und. NMR software What I really wanted to do was to read a review on NMR software. I have been waiting for more than a decade; never seen a web review. During this prolonged period the things I wanted to read have increased up to the point that I am now able to write the reviews by myself, and much more NMR-Spektroskopie inzwischen ein Routineverfahren zur Strukturaufklärung organischer . Freie Universität Berlin - Institut für Chemie und Biochemie - Organische-chemische Praktika - 6 - Moleküle und wer will, findet heutzutage Wege, das ganze Periodensystem zu spektrosko NMR spectroscopy. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a spec-troscopic technique that detects the energy ab-sorbed by changes in the nuclear spin state. The application of NMR spectroscopy to the study of proteins and nucleic acids has provided unique in-formation on the dynamics and chemical kinetics of these systems. One important feature of NMR
An NMR experiment also requires three basic components, as the name NMR - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance - indicates: nuclei - the source of the signal; the big magnet - to set the nuclei on tension; and pulse - the strike that excites the nuclei so that we can hear their music C (6 neutrons + 6 protons = 12) has I = Ø spin. 2. If the number of neutrons plus protons is odd the nucleus has a half-integer spin (1/2, 3/2, 5/2) 13i.e. C (7 neutrons + 6 protons = 13) has I = 1/2 spin. 3. If the number of neutrons and protons are both odd then the nucleus has an integer spin (1, 2, 3) 14i.e NMR instrument composition Principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) When a nucleus that possesses a magnetic moment (such as a hydrogen nucleus 1 H, or carbon nucleus 13 C) is placed in a strong magnetic field, it will begin to precess, like a spinning top How To Interpret An NMR Spectrum . This handout relates the basic theory of NMR described on the theory web handout with spectra of real molecules and how to deduce structure from the spectra. Before reading this handout, you need to be thoroughly familiar with all of theory concepts that were described
Chemical shifts - chemical bonding. • NMR shielding tensor σ: deﬁnition through induced ﬁeld Btot(R) = Bext+Bind(R) σ(R) = − ∂Bind(R) ∂Bext. ˝ 1 • Strong eﬀect of chemical bonding Hydrogen atoms: H-bonds =⇒ NMR spectroscopy: unique characterization of local microscopic structure (liquid water) 6 Introduction. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR 1) spectroscopy and imaging are arguably the most versatile techniques in use in biomedical research today.The phenomenon of NMR was first discovered in the 1940s and was primarily the domain of physicists ( Bloch et al. 1946; Purcell et al. 1946).During the next 50 yr or so, applications of NMR developed rapidly and were used first by chemists NMR is one of the three methods used to study protein structure, the others being X-ray crystallography and cryomicroscopy. NMR is the only method that enables the studies to be conducted in.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) obtains the structure of molecules from their unique magnetic signatures of their component atoms. NMR is the spectroscopic study of the magnetic energy levels of nuclei. NMR is a valuable tool for the study of microstructures of polymer systems, especially for proteins Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spec-troscopy is mostly applied to 1Hor13C nuclei with the nuclear spin I D1 2, but about 100 of 130 NMR isotopes haveI >1 2,andtheelectricquadrupoleinteractionstrongly broadens the NMR signal in the solid-state powder spectra. The perturbing effect of the electric quadrupole interactio Most modern spectrometers are now capable of performing standard NMR diffusion measurements. The information content available ranges from estimates of translational diffusion in free solution from which solution structure and molecular size can be studied, to information on characteristic distances when the motion occurs within restricted systems
We present the basic theory governing spin-exchange-pumped nuclear magnetic res-onance (NMR) gyros. We review the physics of spin-exchange collisions and relaxation as they pertain to precision NMR. We present a simple model of operation as an NMR oscillator and use it to analyze the dynamic response and noise properties of the oscil High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications discusses the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance and how this concept is used in the chemical sciences. This book is written at an intermediate level, with mathematics used to augment verbal descriptions of the phenomena. This text pays attention to developing and interrelating.
It's called magnetic because a magnet is used to enhance the (otherwise negligible) energy of the nuclei. It's a resonance phenomenon because the nuclei, when excited by a wave of the right frequency, respond with an analogue wave. The NMR experiment is conceptualized in a rotating coordinate system Background Theory and Results. Thermodynamic Model. The general thermodynamic model used here is the same as that used previously to describe C-phospholipid mixtures in monolayers and bilayers, except for the choice of specific parameters (11, 12, 17).We consider a liquid bilayer mixture of C, reactive phospholipid (R), and unreactive phospholipid (U) Our training sessions cover only what is needed to efficiently use the current equipment, and its associated software (we do not cover NMR theory). We ask that you take training shortly before using a certain instrument. NMR spectral analysis for Sc 2 Ir 6− xPdxB ( x= 3, 5 and 6) series
NMR spectroscopy explained : simplified theory, applications and examples for organic chemistry and structural biology Item Previe The theoretical background and experimental implementation of overtone NMR spectroscopyof quadrupolar nuclei, i.e., the direct observation of NMRsignals at multiples of the Larmor frequency, are described. Perturbation theoryis used to derive expressions for the dependence of overtone NMRfrequencies, transitionmoments, and dipole-dipole splittings. Working of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. The sample is placed in a magnetic field and the NMR signal is produced by excitation of the nuclei sample with radio waves into nuclear magnetic resonance, which is detected with sensitive radio receivers Solution NMR. Assignment Theory. Visualising 3D Spectra; Triple Resonance Backbone Assignment; Triple Resonance Side-chain Assignment; Double Resonance Backbone Assignment; Double Resonance Side-chain Assignment; Assignment Practice. Initialising the HSQC; Peakpicking the 3D Spectra; Triple Resonance Backbone Assignment. Manual Assignment; Semi-automated Assignmen
Field was published. It provided a fundamental theory for all magnetic res-onance experiments. Despite that the problem of charges in magnetic ﬁelds was ﬁrst proposed and partly solved by C. G. Darwin in 1927, Rabi is usually considered to be the founder of magnetic resonance theory. Moreover, the ﬁrs Diffusion Measurement By NMR John Decatur version 4.2 6/23/2020 1 Background Diffusion measurements in NMR refer to translational diffusion, not rotational diffusion nor to spin diffusion. For random, Brownian motion, of a spherical molecule, the Stokes-Einstein relation is The NMR Phenomenon The nuts and bolts of spin, quantum theory, NMR, precession, and magnetic relaxation. Take me to the first Q&A. The individual topics covered in this section are: Spin Precession Resonance Relaxation: Physics Relaxation: Clinical. In this section we will. H NMR Spectroscopy and Interpretation: More Detailed than the Summary 90 II. Chemical Shifts of the Signal Sets 9's (9.0-10.0) Aldehyde sp2 hybridized C-H's 7's (6.5-8.4) Aromatic sp2 hybridized C-H's 5's (4.8-6.8) Alkene sp2 hybridized C-H's 3's (2.8-4.5) Oxygenated sp3 hybridized C-H's (halogenated and nitrogenated alkyl C-H's will also come in this window.
resonance (NMR) and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is investigated in terms of the molecular Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian, which is obtained from the relativistic Dirac equation via the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. A leading-order perturbational relativistic theory of NMR Presents the theory of NMR enhanced with Mathematica© notebooks Provides short, focused chapters with brief explanations of well-defined topics with an emphasis on a mathematical description Presents essential results from quantum mechanics concisely and for easy use in predicting and simulating the results of NMR experiments Includes Mathematica notebooks that implement the theory in the form of text, graphics, sound, and calculations Based on class tested methods developed by the author. Lernen durch Lehren: Konzeptualisierung als Glücksquelle (2018) Terminologie (bei Bedarf) LdL-Glossar Das LdL/NMR-Team Akteur*innen Materialien Neue Menschenrechte: Leporello Theorie für Fortgeschrittene Aufsätze 1.Lernziel Partizipationsfähigkeit und Netzsensibilität (2009) 2.Neubegründung und Reformulierung der Allgemeinen Erklärung der Menschenrechte (2020) 3 NMR and the BCS Theory Slichter, Charles P. Abstract. The talk will review the status of superconductivity research in the early 1950s, Bardeen's thoughts about the role of an energy gap in producing superconductivity, our ideas that NMR experiments might test his ideas, and about the experimental challenge my. The root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) for 1H, 13C, and 15N NMR chemical shieldings are equal to or less than 0.09, 0.32, and 0.78 ppm, respectively, for all Hartree−Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations reported in this work
View chapter-1-NMR-theory.ppt from ALL 1H at University of Texas. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Introduction: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measures the absorption of electromagnetic radiatio Computed Chemical Shifts - Generating New Scaling Factors. This section covers how to generate scaling factors for a new level of theory (NMR single-point portion) utilizing existing optimized geometries for the test and probe molecule sets.. The Calculation Files page contains Gaussian03 G03a input files with optimized coordinates at several levels of theory for the test and probe molecule sets NMR Theory and Practice David Baker Autumn Quarter 2014 Slides Courtesy of Gabriele Varani. Recommended NMR Textbooks Derome, A. E. (1987) Modern NMR Techniques for Chemistry Research, Pergamon Press Wüthrich, K. (1986) NMR of Proteins and Nucleic Acids , John Wiley and Son NMR Background. Overview of Modern High Resolution NMR Spectroscopy High-resolution NMR spectroscopy provides atomic level three-dimensional structural information about proteins and other biomolecules in solution (high resolution NMR spectroscopy is also the basis for spatially-resolved NMR spectroscopy, otherwise known as magnetic resonance imaging or MRI; however the information these two. Nerz describes basic nmr theory leading to theeory of chemical shift and splitting
Die NMR-Spektroskopie zählt zu den wichtigsten Methoden der Strukturaufklärung organi-scher Moleküle. Abb. 1 zeigt das 1H-NMR-Spektrum von 2-Butyrylbernsteinsäuredieethyl-ester. H C 3 O O O CH 3 O O CH 3 Abb. 1: 1H-NMR-Spektrum von 2-Butyrylbernsteinsäuredieethylester ‚1H' bedeutet, dass hier Wasserstoffkerne spektroskopiert werden Improved NMR Tool for Faster Logging, Transactions of the SPWLA 40th Annual Logging Symposium, Oslo, Norway, May 30-June 3, 1999, paper CC. 3. Prammer MG, Bouton J, Chandler RN and Drack ED: Theory and Operation of a New Multi-Volume NMR Logging System, Transactions of the SPWLA 40th Annual Logging Symposium, Oslo, Norway, May 30 Title: Theory of the NMR relaxation rates in cuprate superconductors with field induced antiferromagnetic order Authors: Yan Chen , Jian-Xin Zhu , C. S. Ting (Submitted on 5 Feb 2003 We present difference-dedicated second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) as an efficient method for the computation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) isotopic shifts, which reflect the geometry dependence of the NMR property in combination with different vibration patterns of two isotopologues
A PDRA position in the NMR and physical studies of endofullerenes is available in the group of Malcolm Levitt, University of Southampton, UK. The position is initially for 1 year but extension may be possible. The project involves our NMR, neutron scattering and other spectroscopic studies of molecular endofullerenes, which are a fascinating new set of materials in whic 2 Theory of Experiment For a formal and comprehensive treatment on the theory of NMR and relaxation times, please refer to a textbook on the subject of NMR spectroscopy . This section will instead focus primarily on the theory directly relevant to our experiment. 2. 2.1 Measuring T PFG‐NMR as a Tool for Determining Self‐Diffusivities of Various Probe Molecules through H‐ZSM‐5 Zeolites Rogéria Bingre Energy and Fuels for a Sustainable Environment Team Institut de Chimie et Procédés pour l'Energie, l'Environnement et la Santé, UMR 7515 CNRS - ECPM, Université de Strasbourg, 25 rue Becquerel, F-67087 Strasbourg cedex, Franc NMR and ESR Spectroscopy K. R. Shamasundar and M. Nooijen University of Waterloo Introduction Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy are two widely used spectroscopic techniques to infer structure and properties of complex molecules (even bio-molecules such as proteins)